**What really the “increasing mass” in relativity means?**

Nimit Theeraleekul B. Eng. (Communication)

(1 May 2012)

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According to Einstein
special theory of relativity (STR), mass seems to increase when it is moving.
Anyway, the increasing mass is the prediction from the theory’s mathematical
formula which was derived from some basic assumptions. So the problem is that the theory tells us nothing
about the mechanism behind; **why and how mass
increases** when it is moving!

**Fig.1. Magic vs. realistic mechanism of increasing of mass.**

Armed with a new concept of vacuum mechanics (mechanism of
vacuum medium) we could improve the theory, which make it possible to explain
the mechanism of the increasing mass.
Indeed we will found that it is not a real increasing mass,
instead it is just the effect arisen from **reactive resistance** **of
vacuum medium**!

** 1) **This paper is talking about “the mechanism of increasing
mass” of any moving object in which there is no explanation from the
conventional interpretation in STR. It is an extension of the paper “Completed Einstein special theory of relativity (CSTR)” present in this website (www.vacuum-mechanics.com). In CSTR we have show how to prove by using a simple
scientific experiment (two-solenoid experiment) for the existence of **“vacuum
medium”** instead of the conventional empty space according to STR.

** 2) **First let us start with the diagram show in fig.1 (a), which
will give us an easy way to visualize how to interpret the concept of the
increasing mass of the moving object. In our daily life for car driving
experience, in which we will found that at low speed the fuel consumption rate,
is less than at high speed, the faster car - the higher consumption rate. The
reason is because of **air’s resistance**, the faster speed - the higher
resistance.

Now we could interpret
the **dragging force** of the surrounding air (which acts on a moving car, a
flying plane etc.) as the **mechanism for the increasing mass** of the
moving object. Indeed we
could see that the faster moving car means** the greater increasing mass of
the car**!

Note suppose that we
are driving in an air free tunnel **without air’s resistance**, then we
would found that the **fuel consumption rate is constant** at any speed.
This means that the moving car’s mass is constant too! This is the concept of Galilean
transformation** **which works under the concept of** **Newton absolute **empty
space!**

** 3)** Next let us consider diagram show in fig.1 (b) which
represents the conventional concept of the increasing mass according to STR.
Here the concept based on of** empty space**, so we do not know why and how
it gives the increasing mass like that!

To see the mechanism of
the increasing mass we have to **improve STR**, based on the concept of** vacuum
medium** as explained in CSTR. In which we have **derived ****a mathematical
formula**** **for
the increasing mass by using the analogy of Lienard-Wiechert potential of a
“moving” charge (in electrodynamics) and summarized as below;

**Fig. 2. A moving charge’s potential
with constant velocity.**

Consider the Lienard-Wiechert potential of a “moving” charge as in the
equation (1) shown in the diagram fig. 2,

……. (1), …… (2).

** **

When we compare it to a “static” electric potential of a stationary
charge (2) above, we would found that **the moving charge appeared to
“increase its charge”** by a factor which is equivalent to in its present position in (2).

And we known that** gravity has the same attraction rule as Coulomb law
in electricity, **if we replace the charge *q* with a mass** **then
we would found that its **gravitation potential** **is the same form as
electric potential **above. So the “static” gravitational potential of a
stationary mass is as (3), while the “moving”
gravitational potential of the moving mass is as (4) below.

….
(3), ….. (4).

Then we could found the **gravitational potential at P in the present
coordinate,** in the same way as the moving charge, and we get

….. (5).

Lastly, we could see that **the moving mass appeared to increase its
mass** by a factor

as in (4) or
equivalent to as in (5) ( in the same way as a “moving” charge do
as showed above)!

** ****
4)**** **Now
we will consider what the “increasing mass” is**.** From the gravitational
potential in equation (3) and (5) we could change it to the **“action force**
** F”** acts at a unit of test mass at P by squaring the distance in
the dominator as in equation (6) and (7) below.

…………………………………….. (6).

….. (7).

Next,** in classical mechanics** where

…………. (8).

** **

When comparing equation (7) to equation (8) we would found that the
moving mass** seems **to “increase its intrinsic mass” without any cause!

Finally, if we accept that the mass is** immerged in vacuum medium**,
then we could understand that the “increasing of mass” represent the** “additional
mass”** due to the **“resistive action of** **vacuum medium”** to the
moving mass!

**
5)** Next let us see an example which shows
how the conventional concept (of STR) was used to explain how the increasing
mass works. The diagram show in fig. 3 is talking about **relativistic
momentum** that involved the collision between two elastic particles. [Reference:
D. Halliday, R.
Resnick, and K. Krane, text book “Physics” Vol. 1 Extended Version
Fourth Edition, p.482-483.]

In (a) the situation before the collision in the reference frame S, (b)
after the collision in S, (c) the situation before the collision in the
reference frame S’ and (d) after the collision in S’.

Using the **classical
**(non-relativistic) formula, the components of the momentum of the
two-particle system in S are

Initial; Final;.

Thus the **momentum is conserved**!

**Fig. 3. Collision between two elastic particles with same
mass.**

Next, when viewing the same
collision from the S’ frame which move relative to S with speed. Together with using Lorentz velocity
transformation for x’ and y’ components observed by S’ that are shown in (c)
and (d), the momentum of the system are

. ….(9)

Then here, clearly the
**momentum is not conserved**.

But if
we use the **relativistic formulas of momentum**,

then …….(10)

So this means the
**momentum is conserved**. And to solve this problem, **relativistic momentum was invented**. But notice that there is no explanation** **why the momentum (9) in S’** **is not conserved.

Finally when both
masses collide with each other then we will get the result as in (10). To
understand equation (10) we have to rewrite it as

…… (11)

(Where.) Looking at the right hand side, the
first and third terms are what be called **relativistic mass**, while the
second and forth terms are the speeds of force field from both of the moving
masses. Anyway, STR cannot explain why and how both the moving masses get their
additional mass.

In contrary, armed
with our new concept of vacuum mechanics (mechanism of vacuum medium), we could
understand that the** “additional mass”** is the effect of the “**resistive
reaction** of vacuum medium”** **because the moving masses were immerged in
vacuum medium as mentioned early.

** 6)** Finally let us talk about the word **“relativistic” **in
STR, such as** **relativistic mass and relativistic momentum which we just
have seen. Conventionally it means that some physical quantity of the moving
object which changed from its **“rest”** value.

Note that both relativistic
mass and relativistic momentum are increasing their value while the mass is
moving. And we could see that their increased value corresponds to the
resistive reaction of vacuum medium as mentioned early. Indeed it is **not the
real increasing of its** **intrinsic mass or momentum**!

Next, we have two more
relativistic effect i.e. **length contraction** and **time dilation**. For
length contraction, one who familiar with STR would found that it has no
obvious prove about it. Then the question is it a real physical length
contraction? And could vacuum mechanics concept explain how and why it is?

Finally, for time
dilation, although there have been obviously proved, such as by comparing the
time measured in a flying jet plane around the world with the time measured on
the earth. Again there is also the question of time dilation that is it a real
slowing of time itself or anything else? In the next paper “**What really the time
dilation in relativity means?**” we will show how our CSTR could answer both
the two mentioned problems.

…………………………………….